Testimonies from People Living in Syria. “What does the American Government have Against Us?”

By Janice Kortkamp & Mark Taliano
Source: Global Research
Rania “if death will come in 5 years or 7 or 10 I would urge it to come now because they have ripped us up of all hopes for any foreseen future… they have killed us while we are still breathing, they have taken any shred of dignity pushing us to strive for our daily bread … I wonder what else they may ask for if we keep compromising ….”

[the full identity of the testimonies is not available]

1. Ayham  I wonder what does the American Government have against the Syrian people and for what reason we are being punished?!

We’ve never been a threat to anyone, never hated anyone and certainly never been against Americans.

Now about the petrol crisis, we had a harsh winter, but we managed to overcome the cold. Now we face lack of Gasoline and most cars stay in queues for about two days on Gas stations to get about 20 liters a week.

2. I do not understand this American intransigence … Why do they want to kill us? We love our country and we do not want to leave it. My young son lost this 20 year old damned war Why does America support terrorism to earn money at the expense of people? The killing of my son I accused him is the one who helped the terrorists and killed our children and today we are counting on the top of our lives Yes, gasoline is the main source of movement Mechanisms, factories and cars … Also heating Thousands of children have been hurt because of the cold and the children of their sons … The livelihoods of people working on cars and engines Small and electricity …. why not talk The American people as long as they sleep in democracy … Hands for living in dignity in our country We have not attacked you … Let us live in peace … …

Thank you janice…

3. Aiham  The US government imposed economic sanctions on our government to force it to accept the entry of Muslim Brotherhood extremists into our government.

We, as a Syrian people, have’t found fuel for heating for two days during the snowfall on Easter night.. not enough fuel for cars …

Is not it enough that the US government create ISIS terrorist in our country as Hillary Clinton said?

Aiham , Damascus

4. Soumaya :  yes it is a real torture, in Aleppo everybody wants to get out of the country.. its a humanitarian shame.. and everything is more expensive.. they want Syria to die.. pray for the people.. I stay strong like you and we will do our best to help..

5. Adnan  : Economic sanctions are enforced by US, WHY NOW? The prohibition of oil supplies to enter Syria indicates an economic war after 8 years of fierce and bloody war waged by US and its allies by deploying hundreds of thousands of terrorists and mercenaries. It is a punishment to the Syrian people especially the poor, who are clearly badly affected and suffer the rarity and high prices of most necessities to their lives. I think it’s for imposing agendas, opposition names and constitution change. Take it from a Syrian from Aleppo, THOSE WHO WITHSTOOD THE MOST VICIOUS AND BLOODY WAR WILL NEVER GIVE UP TO SANCTIONS

6. Mohammad  : US government claiming that America it’s the country of freedom and it’s the greatest country… Etc
What are you doing for God sake???

You have created ISIS and pretending that you’re fighting them? But in fact you are training and arming and supporting them by all ways possible, for what? For power or oil or helping your child so-called Israel?? Israel are fake country that’s why they named it (is real ) the real country is Palestine…

I lost my young brother in this horrible war that you started in my country, he was fighting YOUR ISIS and me as a soldier i spent 8 years of my life fighting them, my best 8 years of youth, i can’t get married or making a family because i sacrificed of my whole life for my country, for my people, and I WILL KEEP FIGHTING.

Leave us alone we can handle our business, i have a lot of Americans friends, they are good people, but you as a government ARE SHIT.

I have a lot to say, i don’t know where can i start,  We lost a lot because they faking the truth about my country especially in media… I’m not done but i think this enough because they know the truth, they know what exactly happened to my country because they did it.

P.S : I’ve learned English during this war to send this kind of messages to the world, we as Syrians we don’t know what give up means, country who loves all kind of education.. Just take a look of the difference between us and Saudi Arabia, your beloved friend that has a bloody hands in Yemen with your blessings.

I’m not done……

7. Salma  : I already have financial difficulties so imagine now with even higher food prices.. Every end of every month I stay without food for days because I have enough money to either feed myself or my dogs and I choose to feed my dog.. Who is a vegan dog most days of the month BTW.. I am vegan everyday of the year.. And I still can’t make it..

8. Nourhanne :  Well, I will be clear … I am 25 years old. I live in Damascus, the old neighborhoods of Bab Touma. Sanctions significantly affected the car’s long queues on gas stations for long hours Public conductors were weak for staff and students go to work It took a lot of time Export to other areas was also difficult.

These sanctions are certainly a mistake to be decided by the United States which considers itself with human rights

9.  I live in tartus and i have an advice to these sick minds in washington D.C

By punishing us the people of Syria , You are not turning us against our government ..despite the hell we live in everyday we know who is doing this and this made us more united . The only hate is happening here is against you . Why you hate us why….

10. I spent 4 hours to fill my car with only 20 litters and these are my share for 5 days

My father 85 years old in drykish near safita 35 km away from tartus i must go there every day to stay with him because he is sick .

My work in tartus i have no oil to visit him daily i dont know what to do.

11. Ali I remember watching western movies when i was a kid with my siblings… “Once upon a time in the west” exactly… I remember the fly scene at the beginning… At that moment i fell in love with the American lifestyle and mentality. Later i watched more movies and read as many books as i could after learning English just to know more about America… I have always admired and trusted the American people… But i never saw a wider gap between people and their politicians. The sanctions you impose are not harming anyone but people like me, people who can never teach their kids to love America as we did… What am i supposed to tell my 4 years old kid?! America is good but you are not!!! He wouldn’t understand…

Sometimes i really wonder.. Is there really an “American people”?! can they change things like we see on tv?! Or is the “American people” as real as the “Avengers”..?!

I know these words wont change a thing… I wish you arrange a trip for us to meet Americans there and hold meetings to tell them what is really happening here… What has been happening since WW2…

But again… That’s rather impossible… Aliens like me cannot enter the heavens of America… A green card is needed!!! Right?!! Yet your soldiers can come oceans away.. No questions asked…

Democracy might not be at it’s best here in my country… But the world you created can only produce such an ugly truth

12. Hanan : It’s Unbearable , I’m a college student and I need to get out early because of the difficulty of transportation ، I need to stand an hour under the sun after finishing classes to find a means of transport or bus to go home . Most of the time I go and back home on foot. I can’t wait.. Whether it is America’s or others this sanctions are absolute evil. We were talking today about they cut off everything, leaving only oxygen and Pepsi because it made in Damascus

13. Youssef  The economic siege on Syria increases my love for the Syrian national leadership. On the other hand there is great hatred of the United States of America.

14. Labib Syrian people in USA and elsewhere pose no threat to anyone and specially American. Syria has provided the best doctors, engineers etc to the world and it is not fair to treat Syria and Syrians with such barbaric sanctions

15. Heba

I don’t care what exact reason is behind the economic sanctions, I care about my siblings’ future and mine.

Our parents used to narrate stories of them studying on the lights of candles, back to the days when there was no electricity.

Nowadays, we’re doing exactly the same! Studying on low-lit LEDs until our eyes start to hurt and get foggy. We had to save some money to get my sister a pair of glasses.

My previous job, as an online freelancer, was ALWAYS delayed because my laptop’s battery would die and there’s no way to charge it. I got fired because of this!

My brother has asthma and last week he had an attack by night, yet we had no gas nor did our neighbors, so we couldn’t go search for a pharmacy to bring him an inhaler.

Not to mention that our fridge is empty, like literally empty, most of the days. Only thing we can afford is pasta, rice, and bread, which is affecting our diet and now my sister and I are anemic. Vegetables and meats are things we should save some money for, in order to buy them like once or twice a month. Despite the fact that 3 out of 6 members of my family are working. So you may imagine how expensive everything is.

These may sound like silly things to a basic human being, but to us, these are things we live with and struggle with daily. No one deserves to live such a stressful life that affects their lifestyle, health, future, oh and their cortisol levels! Sounds like unimportant ‘third-world’ issues? Well, you can make it better with just a single statement of yours.

– G, Tartous

16. Lilly :  I live in Syria: my family’s business stopped 8 years ago when the war started. We have been living on savings since then, and a few sales we made to survive. He used to buy machines made abroad and import them for sale in Syria. Because of sanctions imposed by US and EU he can not wire transfer money to buy machines from Syria to the company abroad. Additionally, because of US and EU sanctions he can not buy machines from Europe, which is so close to Syria, or from any other country, because any country found selling to anyone in Syria will face fines and sanctions. You might think that he could just buy from China, for example, since it is a friendly country, but they will not accept any wire transfer on money from any person or bank in Syria either, due to the same problem: EU and US sanctions. The goal is to prevent anyone living in Syria from ordering any materials needed for reconstruction of homes in Syria. The US and EU goal is to prevent Syria from recovery, or peace

17. Ammar : Before the war, we used to dream how to develop and be better persons. How to get more degrees and move to a higher level.

Now the best achievement is to make enough money to mantain a decent life.

And the hero of his time who has his car full of gaz.

It’s not only about gaz or money, it’s about settlement and this has been lost long ago.

18. The economic blockade imposed by the United States on Syria is primarily aimed at the Syrian people, which is mainly suffering because of terrorism and the siege to exhaust the remaining elements of his life.

Damn the US government

Damn the Western Alliance

I do not mean the American people. The people have nothing to do with what the government does. I respect and love the American people.

19. From a Syrian American: Asker

The American people need to understand that Syria has provided the world cultures many positive things, and Syria as an original Christian country doesn’t pose any threats to the world, the sanctions are effecting many innocent people specially children and it will not work because the purpose of it to turn the Syrian people against the government that will not work ,they love their president Bashar Assad.as Syrian born American citizen I can tell you that we come to America and we achieve the American dream, we don’t use or abuse the system ,some of us pay more income taxes than many politicians, we respect the American constitution, we love you Mr trump but please get out of Syria and let them rebuild their lives and have peace, I live in the commonwealth of Kentucky near Lexington, originally from California, love this country coast to coast.
20. Adadshams : انقلي هذا الكلام الى السناتور الامريكي والممثلين لايوجد اختلاف عندنا اذا كان حصارن وعقوبات لقد قتلنا ودمرت منازلنا وهجرنا وفقدنا الاخوه والاحبه باسم الحريه فلن نتراجع عن التضحيه للوطن والحب السيد الرئيس بشار الاسد…قولي لهم هم الامريكان وال سعود .هذه خيبة املكم واحلامكم …امه قائدها اسد لن تركع

Translation of statement # 20 by YK:

Please send the following to the American senators and congress: In the name of freedom we suffered death of family and love ones, destruction of our homes, forced to immigrate. Sanctions and blockades on top all that will not discourage us from sacrificing for our homeland, our love for president Bashar Assad…tell them, the Americans, the Saudis that their hopes (schemes) and dreams will fail… A nation led by Assad will not kneel.

21. Faihaa : We Syrians have experienced awful things no one could imagine.. we faced the threat of death and killing thousand times throughout these 8 years. We face the difficulties of everyday lives and needs with hopeful hearts that tomorrow we are going to have our peace back. All neighboring countries have sancted us Syrians of entering their lands with no specific reason. Oils, water, electricity, wheat flour has been limited and we are and everyone knows that we are one of the leading countries to export these materials.

And what do you expect when the war ends? A better future right? For you and your family and friends and all your fellow citizens but what happened was the exact opposite! US have imposed sanctions and embargo on us and guess what who is the most affected one? It is the humble Syrian citizen. Don’t you have any humanity in your blood?

Don’t you see that we are the ones who suffer..

By doing this you put us in a new war; the war of survival…

22. Ghenwa  : As a Syrian, it’s so hard to adapt to life here, it’s like accepting to live in hell for the rest of your life and the sad part is that you can’t do anything about it. I wake up everyday feeling impressed that i survived another day in this place, and i try my hardest to make a difference or to do something that would make me feel good about this place. We’re living under a massive threat.

We face killers, kidnappers, thieves and all kinds of devils.

I’m a 23 year old college girl that needs to work 24/7 while studying to provide food and rent and to pay her duties, my family had to travel to Germany as refugees but i was stuck here because I’m older than 18 so the german refugee law can’t except me there.

You can’t imagine how awful it is living in Syria, and the worst part is that we’re not even allowed or welcomed in other countries

23. Malak  : The economic siege on Syria increases my love for the Syrian national leadership. On the other hand there is great hatred of the United States of America


أنت يا صديقي تتحدث هنا عن متطلبات حياة و بقاء ، إن تناسينا التعليم و الجامعات و الذهاب إلى الوظائف أيضاً.
نتحدث عن شعب يضيّق عليه الخناق عسكرياً بحرب شعواء منذ ثمانية أعوام لا تزال مواكب الشهداء بالآلاف ، آلاف المفقودين و المختطفين ، آلاف المشردين و المهجرين ، الحصار يعني إيقاف لقمة عيش المزارع و العامل و المدني و العسكري ، وإيقاف أي تقدم لأي حلول يمكن لها أن تساهم في معالجة مفرزات الحرب على الأقل .
لا يمكن لنا إلقاء اللوم على الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية وحدها ، كل الأطراف الغربية و العربية مشاركة بكل الوسائل لتضييق الخناق على الشعب السوري ..
الشعب هنا ، لا يمكن لنا أن نخبركم عن قوته ، إنه جبار صامد .
يمتلك القدرة على الصمود من حيث لا يدري أحد .
إنها حرب قذرة حطمت حياة الكثيرين و الحصار اليوم يقضي على ما تبقى من النور… حتى لدى هؤلاء الذين تظنهم كالأطفال بابتساماتهم ، إنهم يتألمون حقاً يا صديقي.
عاشت سوريا و عاش الشعب السوري الصامد .

Translation of statement # 24 by YK:

(Janice, this is a long statement, allow me to simply re-order the sentences in it so that it has more clarity and impact. All I am doing is to start with the last paragraph which has most of the punch. If you like to put it in the original order, just move the first sentence and put it at the end).

This is a dirty war that destroyed the lives of many, the blockade today is extinguishing whatever light is left…even those smiling children are really suffering my friend. You my friend speak of survival and livelihood, you forget education, universities, and going to work. We speak about strangling a nation with a war now in its eighth year, still killing martyrs by the thousands, thousands of missing and kidnapped, thousands of displaced and exiled, the blockade means starving the peasants, the workers, the civilian and the soldier, it stops any progress towards any solution to the root cause of the war. We cannot only blame the USA, western and arab forces are complicit in many ways in tightening the noose on the Syrian people. The people here, you cannot imagine their strength, their resilience, their resistance will be beyond anyone’s imagination.


ان الولايات المتحدة الامريكية والدول الغربية، ومعها بعض الدول العربية والكيان الصهيوني، هم من اسسوا جميع الحركات الراديكالية الارهابية، وهم من دربوهم ومولوهم ودعموهم على كافة الاصعدة، وجميعنا نعرف أن كل ما مر به الشعب السوري منذ عام 2011 ولا زال، هم من يتحملون مسؤليته، وعندما فشلت تلك الدول باسقاط الدولة السورية عسكريا-وذلك طبعا بفضل صمود الشعب السوري وتضحياته ووقوفه مع قيادته – لجؤوا الى الحرب الاقتصادية التي يدفع ثمنها الشعب السوري بكل أطيافه، لانها تؤثر سلبا على مختلف سبل الحياة، وهي تستهدف لقمة عيش المواطنين الأبرياء، حيث انها تمنع وصول المحروقات التي تعد عصب حياة المواطنين، حيث لايقدر الموظفين الوصول الى اماكن عملهم، ولا الطلاب الوصول الى جامعاتهم ومدارسهم، حتى أن المرضى يجدون صعوبة بالغة بالوصول الى المستشفيات لتلقي علاجهم، وهناك بعض الحالات فمثلا، يعاني الكثير من المرضى خصوصا المصابين بالسرطان،،، يعانون مشقة الوصول الى العاصمة ومراكز المدن لأهذ جرعاتهم العلاجية، فهل ياسيد ترامب تيتطيع ان تشرح لنا ماهو الخطر الاستراتيجي الذي يشكله مريض السرطان على السلم العالمي؟! وماهو التهديد الذي يشكله الطالب الذي يريد الوصول الى جامعته؟! وليس ذلك فحسب بل ان منع وصول الوقود يشل الحركة الاقتصاديةة ويؤدي الى غلاء الاسعار وانعدام سلع رئيسة وبالتالي فأن تلك العقوبات تستهدف المواطن البريئ الفقير وليس اي جهة اخرى، وليت الامر يتوقف عند الوقود فحسب، بل ان السيد ترامب ينوي اتهاذ المزيد من الاجراءات العقابية ضمن قانون قيصر، لكن من صمد امام كل تلك الدول وارهابها وظلمها وعدوانها كل تلك السنين، لن يهزم الآن ابدا، ويبدو ان اعداءنا نسوا اننا طائر الفينيق السوري الذي سيبعث من تحت رماد حقدهم ليعود اقوى مما كان….

Translation of statement # 25 by YK: (this can be a headline from this message: “Mr Trump would you please explain to us how a cancer patient can be a threat to world peace?! What is the threat caused by a student who wants to reach is university?)

The USA, western nations, some Arab nations, Israel, are the ones who created all radical terrorist groups, provided funding, training and supported them in all aspects, we know that these countries are responsible for all the suffering of the Syrian people since 2011. After their failure with the military regime change war, they resorted to economic warfare where all segments of the syrian population are victims are paying the price in every aspect of their lives, it targets the livelihood of innocent people, with oil sanctions, it limits employees ability to go to work, students to go to schools and universities, patients from getting to get to hospitals to receive care, for example and especially cancer patients who need to be treated in specialised centres in the cities, so Mr Trump would you explain to us how a cancer patient can be a threat to world peace?! What is the threat caused by a student who wants to reach is university? Economic sanctions only impact innocent citizens, causes huge inflation and deprivation. Those (Syrian people) who resisted the injustice, aggression and terror from all these countries over all these years, will never be defeated, it seems that our enemies have forgotten that we are the syrian phoenix that will rise from the ashes of their plot to become stronger than it was.

26. Mark  : Personally, I’m happy with the less pollution in Aleppo. It’s hard for students to teach the university as they live far away from it. But I go there walking. It takes me 30 minutes to reach it walking, and less than 15 minutes in a microbus. I dont use microbuses unless it’s urgent or tired. I’m an athlete so I’m not affected. On the other side, there are thousands of cars waiting on the line in oil stations. I can take a picture of you want. So people are wasting their time (lives) waiting. Someone in my area died from a clot because of the long hours waiting on the line.

In Aleppo there are many many cars and lot of pollution caused by cars and the huge generators that generate electricity for homes instead of government electricity. Thanks that in these last 2 weeks, the government electricity has been very very good.

Janice  it has no effects to me personally. But it will affect us as people after few months .. there will be no food and the dollar price will raise up to 1700 s.p . That’s a crime.

I’m a mentally tough young person who can handle all kinds ofbad situations. That’s why it doesn’t affect me Personally, because I find solutions and don’t give up in front of small or huge problems. I hope this oil situation wont last too long because it will beat us all sooner or later


سوسن سليمان حويجي بالرغم من الحرب الجائره على..صمدنا 8 سنوات..ذقنا بها الويلات..لم يبق منزل الا وقدم شهيد. او اثنان.دمرو حياتنا فقدنا مؤساساتنا.الحكوميه شردونا سرقو سكينتا…قتلو احلامنا ولكن صمدنا واعتلينا المجد.بانتصارات جيشنا وقائدنا ولكن لكي..نبقى في الظلام والتخلف وبعد ان حققنا انتصارات كبيره على الارض حولو حربهم الى..الى حرب اقتصاديه حاربونا بلقمة عيشنا..ضيقو علينا الخناق..انهارت عملتنا .منعو عنا كل مقومات الحياة..منعو استيراد الادويه والاجهزه الطبيه. منعو استيراد المحروقات.. سيطرو على ابار النفط والغاز..سيطرو على حقول القمح والقطن. والزيتون..ولكن ما زلنا نقاوم والى اخر رمق فينا سنحارب ارهابهم وندحرهم هم المارقون ونحنا الباقون متمسكين بحب الوطن.ومتمسكين بثوابتنا الوطنيه..ووحدة الشعب السوري ووحدة ارضنا. ونقول لهم برا جئتم بحرا جئتم..جوا جئتم ستهزمون ستهزمون..
انت ومشغليكم الامريكان ودول الخليج. سندحركم الى غير رجعه..
اننا مازلنا نعيش على الكفاف ولكن ما زلنا صامدين.. صامدين…. سنعلم اولادنا في مناهجهم بانكم انتم من قتل البراءه انتم من قتل علمائنا وقاماتنا…. وحرمونا الحياة الكريمه
انتم من ارسلكم الصهاينه لتحقيق حلمهم ولكن هيهات منا الذله..

Translation of statement # 27 by YK

(it seems to be a reply to sawsan sliman) Despite an 8 year war that didn’t leave a household without a martyr, a war that destroyed our lives, our government institutions, displaced us, stole our peace killed our dreams, despite all that we resisted and were glorioulsy victorious thanks to our army and our leader (Assad), so in order to keep us in the dark and backwardness they transformed their war into an economic war targeting our daily bread, strangling us, destroying our currency forbidding us from importing all life necessities, medicines and medical equipment, fuel, they took control of (Syrian) oil and gas fields, they occupied our wheat, cotton and olive fields. We are still resisting and we will fight to our last breath against their terror, with our love of our homeland, our patriotic principles, we will fight for the unity of our land and our people, we will win against the Americans and their gulf allies, we are surviving, resisting and we will teach pour children that you killed innocents, killed our best and brightest minds, deprived us of an honourable life, all in the service of zionist dreams.

28. Hade

إن ماتمارسة الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية من حصار أقتصادي جائر يستهدف الشعب العربي السوري بكل اطيافة لا يستثني منهم أحد . ويهدف إلى أضعافه وتقوية المجموعات الأرهابية التي تعمل تحت سيطرتها .
فبما نفسر أحتلالها لشرقي الفرات ودخولها الأراضي السورية بدون إذن من القيادة السورية الممثل الوحيد للشعب السوري . ولما تسمح ببيع النفط والقمح الواقع تحت سيطرتها لتركيا . وكيف لها أن تدمر الصهاريج المحملة بالنفط وقوافل الشاحنات المحملة بالمواد الغذائية المتجهة للشعب السوري بالطيران الامريكي المسمى طيران التحالف … بينما صهاريج النفط السوري والغاز السوري المسروق من قبل قسد والمجموعات الارهابية الاخرى لاتراها وتغط الطرف عنها لا بل تساندها وتدعمها . فالإدارة الامريكية تدعم الأرهاب بكل انواعه في سورية وهي التي تمده بالعتاد وتؤمن له الحماية الغطاء .

Translation of statement # 28 by YK

The economic blockade imposed by the USA is targeting every Syrian citizen without exception. Its aim is to strengthen terrorist groups that operate under its (USA) control. How do you explain the occupation of the eastern Euphrates region without permission from the Syrian government, the sole representative of the Syrian people. It is selling oil and wheat under its control to Turkey. The (US and its allies) are bombing Syrian government convoys transporting fuel and food stuffs, while supporting terrorist groups continued theft of Syrian oil and gas. The American administration supports, protects and provides cover for terrorism in Syria.


نحن لا نريد الموت لاحد بل ندفع الموت عن أنفسنا و ندافع عن حقوقنا و ثرواتنا كما كرامتنا إن كان لدى الدول المتسلطة و المنظمات الأممية أدنى شك بالرضوخ للعقوبات المفروضة على الشعب السوري و قيادته فإنكم واهمون نحن كشعب سوري مؤمن بقضيته صامدون و سائرون على خطى قائدنا بشار حافظ الأسد و الجيش السوري الاسطوري . نحن أبناء هذه الأرض و نحن الباقون

Translation of statement # 29 by YK

We don’t wish death to anyone, but we are fighting for our lives, our rights, our treasures. If the (regime change cabal) are deluded believing that the sanctions will drive the Syrian people and its leadership into submission. We the syrian people are steadfast in our resistance and our trust in our leader Bashar Hafez alAssad and in our legendary Syrian army, we the children of this land, we are the remainers.

30. Samuel :  I’m American, with Syrian heritage living in Syria since the illegal invasion of Syria, and can tell you that the US government has done nothing but lie against Syria.

31. Qusay

أنا طبيب أسنانوأتابع حاليا دراستي للحصول على شهادة الدكتوراه، لقد تأثرت شخصيا بشكل كبير بالعقوبات الأمريكية أحادية الجانب، فمثلا عندما كنت أقوم بدراسة الماجستير كانت المعاناة كبير في العثور على سبل لنشر بحثي العلمي في المجاَلات العلمية بشكل أساسي بسبب حظر كافة وسائط الدفع الالكتروني مثل باي بال وماستر كارد، كما أنه من شبه المستحيل أن أستطيع الارتقاء ببحثي العلمي الذي أجريه حاليا للحصول على شهادة الدكتور حيث يتعذر علي التعامل مع المختبرات العلمية و الاستفادة من التقنيات الحديثة المتوفرة لديها للوصول الى نتائج طبية أفضل تنعكس بشكل أساسي على الارتقاء بالقطاع الطبي السوري وانوه إلى عزمنا وتصميمنا كسوريين على المضي قدما وتأدية دورنا الحضاري فقد قمت بإجراد قسم من بحثي في دولة لبنان لتوفر جهاز أمكنني الإستفادة منه…
أما بالنسبة لعملي كطبيب أسنان فهو لم ينج أيضا من هذه العقوبات الظالمة، حيث أصبح من الصعب الحصول على المواد الطبية اللازمة لاتمام عملي وإن توفرت تكون بأسعار عالية ولا تتناسب مع مقدرة مرضاي على تحمل تكلفتها…
وقد اضررت مرارا في الفترة السابقة إلى تأجيل مواعيد المرضى بسبب عدم تمكني من العودة من دمشق إلى العيادة بسبب انقطاع مادة البانزين التي فرضت عليها مؤخرا الولايات المتحدة عقوبات اقتصادية..
في ظل هذه العقوبات الجائرة سوف نصمد كما صمدنا ضد داعش و سننتصر و كلما ازداد صغط الولايات المتحدة علينا كلما ازداد تضامننا والتفافنا حول السيد الرئيس لننتصر معا…
شكرا لك صديقي وسام ولصديقتك لنشركم الصورة الحقيقية لمعاناتنا

Translation of statement # 31 by YK

I am a dentist currently pursuing a ph.d. The sanctions are severely impacting me and my patients. For example the inability to make simple credit card transactions, impacts my ability to do my research and to collaborate with the global scientific medical community. I was forced to do some of my work in Lebanon. The sanctions are making it very difficult and extremely expensive for me to obtain the medical supplies needed for me to do my job as a dentist in Damascus. The combination of this and fuel sanctions have forced me to cancel and delay many patients’ appointments. In the shadow of these sanctions we will resist, as we resisted against Daesh (Islamic State) and we will be victorious. The more the USA increases its pressure on us the more we will be united around our president. Thanks to my friend Wissam and your (lady) friend (probably you Janice) for publishing the real picture of our struggle.

41. Kamal: My name is Kamal, I have seen another side of the sanctions which have been going on for more than 30 years.

I used to work for a European Airline in Damascus airport, was shocked by the amount of defective Syrian aircrafts sitting in the airport while the Syrian airline was operating with only two aircrafts at that time, they were using those grounded aircrafts for spare parts for the remaining two. when I asked the technicians why can’t we repair and use those aircrafts, they told me that America is not giving us spare parts as part of the sanctions!

USA also doesn’t allow Europe to give parts to Syria.

The sad part is that on one occasion, our aircraft (the European airline I was working for) was grounded in Syria and needed a part, the Syrians gave them that without hesitation, I saw that with my own eyes.

What America is doing is actually putting innocent civilian lives in danger.

Sorry for the long draft

42. Ali

امريكا تتركنا بحالنا ونحنا بالف خير من الله امريكا هي الشيطان الاكبر والسعوديه بلد الكفر والعهر (اطهر ارض وانجس شعب)

43. From a Syrian American. Samira  : I’m a pharmacist who saw many people suffering from gland disease because of sanction on Syrians there was no any possibility to diagnose it it was not allowed for Syrians to buy the radioactive tablets used for diagnosis .

Now as American from Syrian  origin I’ll not vote for any official in the USA government .

Congress senate or president who will impose or support sanctions on Syrians .

Not only me many of my friends Syrians and Americans too

44. Vicken We have been effected by this embargo so badly and still we are ..

Every thing is running by oil and gas and when they desapere from your daily life , you have that feeling Life Stops ..

45. Maggy  It is so unhuman act to deal with people of any country or city or area as you are dealing with the Syrian people …I am from Aleppo and I live this dishumility every day while you all, are sitting in your homes ,driving your vehicles, living your ordinary life….your brothets or sisters in humanity, the Syrian people the Aleppo’s people are not living, they are dying step by step because of your cruality because of your enmity, because of your selfishness because of your greediness….its enough how much you tried to ruin Syria to ruin Aleppo you can ruin whatever you want you who are sitting in the top ….but be sure you will never be able to ruin the strong will of the Syrian people …the will to live to survive to struggle to kill the will of the Satan

46. Robert Aleppo is dying…and Trump is happy.

Aleppo was the industrial capital of Syria, Turkey and allies tried to destroy it and stole all the heavy industry there…the western minded terrorists destroy many of the city’s buildings and the infrastructure, they destroy the old Aleppo’s civilization….All that couldn’t break the people’s will…and now the american sanctions try it again….I’m sure that no one can bend this people’s will who did endure an 8 years random war.

Sanctions on Syria means to make its people suffer…not more

47. From a Syrian American: Stepan: It is so unhuman act to deal with people of any country or city or area as you are dealing with the Syrian people …I am from Aleppo and I live this humility every day while you all ,are sitting in your homes ,driving your vehicles, living your ordinary life….your brothers or sisters in humanity ,the Syrian people the Aleppo’s people are not living ,they are dying step by step because of your cruelty because of your enmity, because of your selfishness because of your greediness….it’s enough how much you tried to ruin Syria to ruin Aleppo you can ruin whatever you want you who are sitting in the top ….but be sure you will never be able to ruin the strong will of the Syrian people …the will to live to survive to struggle to kill the will of the Satan

*Note to readers: please click the share buttons above or below. Forward this article to your email lists. Crosspost on your blog site, internet forums. etc.

Featured image is from Mideast Discourse

The original source of this article is Mark Taliano
Copyright © Janice Kortkamp, Mark Taliano, 2019

Yemen Runs Out of Fuel and Last Hospitals Close

By Randi Nord
Source: Geopolitics Alert
Sana’a (GPA) – While the mainstream media focuses on condemning President Trump for pulling US troops out of Syria, Yemen faces a national health crisis. The last functioning hospitals across multiple major cities in Yemen will shut their doors and stop providing services to patients. Geopolitics Alert spoke with Yemen’s Ministry of Health spokesman Yousuf Al-Haidari to discuss the repercussions of this crisis.

Yemen has completely run out of fuel.

Imagine how communities across the United States would screech to a halt if gas stations simply ran dry one day. People couldn’t drive to work. Families couldn’t cook food. Homes wouldn’t have hot water to clean or bathe.

For a country living under siege like Yemen, lack of gas also means that hospitals must close. Most hospitals have reduced their working hours and the rest are preparing to close entirely.

“There are hundreds of thousands of patients, if not millions, who will die quickly and slowly, they will die in pain. Who will provide oil to millions of Yemenis who need transportation to reach these hospitals? Who will provide transportation for the 6,000 kidney failure patients to the health center twice a week? Who will provide fuel to the private sector, which provides treatment services to about 60% of the population?” Health Ministry spokesman Dr. Yousuf Al-Haidari told Geopolitics Alert.

The poorest communities living in Yemen’s rural areas, like Hodeidah, are most at risk because they cannot afford transportation to functioning hospitals five-hours away in Sana’a.

Hospitals close in Yemen and the media remains silent
Dr. Yousuf Al-Haidari explained that while 50% of the healthcare sector operates in a country running on simple health infrastructure, the number of people in need of health services after the aggression and siege has multiplied five times over.

Here’s what the current crisis looks like in practical terms:

120 government hospitals and 255 private hospitals
3000 government health centers, 900 private
More than 5000 pharmacies, public and private
Hundreds of laboratories
27 dialysis centers
3 cancer treatment centers
Al-Haidari highlighted the already devastating health crises facing his country:

More than 50,000 total citizens wounded — including men, women, and children — due to the coalition military attacks.
The number of malnourished children (under five) has risen to 2,200,000 out of 5,000,000 children — or 44% — 500,000 of whom are severely malnourished.
1.1 million women of child-bearing age are malnourished which affects their children and future pregnancies.
A woman dies every two hours due to complications of pregnancy and childbirth.
UN reports and MoH reports also say that a Yemeni child dies every 10 minutes from malnutrition or a deadly disease.
48,000 health workers’ salaries have been cut off for 40 months due to the relocation of the Central Bank of Yemen from the capital Sanaa to the city of Aden, under the Saudi-Emirati occupation.
Weaponizing disease
Not only has the Saudi coalition continued its aggression, but it’s also tightened the noose on Yemen’s aid and healthcare in an attempt to strangle Yemen’s most vulnerable civilians to death. Cancer patients, kidney patients, pregnant women, children, and the elderly face the worst consequences.

Many people may not realize how a fuel shortage and blockade affects every aspect of Yemeni healthcare.

95% of the medical devices in Yemeni government hospitals are out of their validity period but doctors must work with them because there is no alternative. Patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes (500k patients), heart disease, kidney failure (6000), kidney transplants (3000), cancer (60k), and other chronic diseases cannot access their medicines due to the high price in the commercial market. The government isn’t able to offer a free or affordable alternative due to the blockade.

MoH spokesman al-Haidari said that dozens of people die from a lack of access to vital medicine every day.

Epidemics have spread again, which disappeared in Yemen decades ago, due to the destruction of Yemeni infrastructure, whether in water or sanitation. As part of the cholera epidemic, 2,099,531 people were infected as of October 5, 2019.

Al-Haidari highlighted that the blockade, deteriorating healthcare system, and poor sanitation has caused medieval diseases to return in Yemen with devastating consequences:

“Another 3,662 never arrived by ambulance to hospitals because of the poor economic conditions, the destruction of roads, and fear of warplanes targeting them and other reasons. This is a catastrophic figure in one epidemic and in the 21st century!”

It’s common for Riyadh to carry out “double-tap” airstrikes that target ambulances, media crews, and EMTs following an initial airstrike on a civilian home or gathering. Last summer, warplanes struck a crowded fish market in Hodeidah and subsequently bombed the entrance to the hospital, killing 55 and injuring over 130.

Compounding the cholera issue, a diphtheria epidemic has also surged with 4,244 infected and 233 killed as of September 2019 — 79% of which were children under 14. Furthermore, H1N1 flu, malaria, dengue fever, measles, and many other epidemics have spread and killed thousands of Yemenis.

Another 42,000 Yemenis died due to the closure of Sanaa airport, which was closed on August 8, 2016 and is still closed today.

“More than 200,000 patients need to travel abroad for treatment and cannot because of the closure. We lose about 30-50 patients daily,” he said.

Why do Yemeni hospitals need gas?
Only 40% of Yemen had access to electricity prior to the war. During the course of the nearly five-year aggression, US-backed Saudi coalition warplanes have bombed vital power stations and equipment that major cities needed to supply power. Most hospitals, factories, hotels, large buildings, and industrial operations all relied on backup gas-powered generators to supply electricity even before the war began.

Many Yemeni homes and communities throughout the capital Sana’a have shifted to solar power to break their reliance on gas. However, it’s not uncommon for the Saudi coalition to target community solar stations as well. While solar power may fill the gap for homes, hospitals and large operations still require gas power.

Yemen is an oil-producing country and home to more than 3 billion barrels of crude oil reserves but the United States and the United Arab Emirates currently occupy Yemen’s major oil fields and export the product.

As a result, Yemenis must import fuel and rely on aid to survive.

The US-Saudi coalition is arbitrarily detaining fuel ships to create a crisis
The unlawful US-backed Saudi-imposed land, sea, and air blockade restricts all imports to Yemen. Before ships dock at Hodeidah port to distribute aid, they must first dock in Djibouti where both the Saudis and UN inspect the ships for weapons and missile supplies.

The process takes weeks and food often rots in the hot African sun before it even makes it to Yemen.

Last month, Sana’a officials and local NGOs revealed that the Saudi coalition had arbitrarily detained at least 13 ships filled with food, fuel, and medical supplies. These ships had already passed inspection in a neighboring port yet Saudi authorities refused to allow the ships to dock and unload in Yemen’s Hodeidah port.

Riyadh’s actions detaining the ships are a blatant violation of the Stockholm Agreement from December 2018 where Yemen’s Sana’a government and members of the Saudi coalition worked out a partial peace deal. While Yemen’s Ansarullah held up their end of the bargain (which included handing over control of Hodeidah port to international observers), the Saudi coalition immediately violated the agreement with airstrikes and military bombardment and continues to do so.

Mohammed Al-Houthi of Sana’a’s Supreme Revolutionary Committee said in a Tweet that the ship detentions prove that the coalition is not interested in peace.

“The escalation of the blockade by detaining ships does not represent positive intentions and does not imply a practical orientation towards peace. The world should realize that exacerbating the humanitarian situation through increasing the blockade is nothing but a catastrophe. Yemen is known to be undergoing the worst humanitarian crisis created by the aggression. We hope to take the matter very seriously as it is purely a humanitarian issue.”

No media coverage for catastrophe in Yemen
Remember the surge of coverage about the so-called “last hospital in Aleppo?” Unsurprisingly, those same journalists are nowhere to be found now that Yemen’s healthcare system is legitimately collapsing due to the actions of Washington, Riyadh, and Abu Dhabi.

A quick Google search shows that on the contrary, promoted articles written by Saudi coalition media outlets actually highlight Saudi “aid” to Yemen.

WHO: West sanctions on Syria hitting children’s cancer treatment

Source: Press TV
Western sanctions on Syria are seriously impacting the treatment of children with cancer, say local and World Health Organization (WHO) officials.

“The impact of economic sanctions imposed on Syria heavily affected the procurement of some specific medicine, including anti-cancer medicines,” said the WHO representative in Syria, Elizabeth Hoff.

Syria has been under an array of sanctions imposed by the US and the European Union, which claim they have included exemptions for medicines and other humanitarian supplies for Syria, rejecting criticisms of sanctions.

“Such measures are not aimed at the civilian population,” an EU spokeswoman said. “EU sanctions do not apply to key sectors of the Syrian economy such as food and medicine.”

However, the sanctions are affecting trade in pharmaceuticals due to restrictions on financial transactions and business with the Syrian government.

The sanctions are preventing many international pharmaceutical companies from dealing with the Syrian authorities as well as hindering foreign banks’ handling of payments for imported drugs, Hoff said.

The WHO official added that in addition to cancer medication, there were critical shortages of insulin, anesthetics, specific antibiotics needed for intensive care, serums, intravenous fluids and other blood products and vaccines.

Meanwhile, the head of the Damascus hospital, Maher Haddad, also blamed sanctions for the lack of much-needed medication.

“Most of the cancer medicines are imported. Pharmex (the company that buys drugs for hospitals across Syria) used to import the stock of medicines that public hospitals need. But it has not been able to do so largely because of the economic sanctions, I believe,” he said.

This comes as six years of foreign-backed militancy has heavily affected the Syrian health service, once one of the best in the Middle East.

The WHO says only 44 percent of hospitals are now fully functioning across Syria and more than a quarter are not working at all as a result of the war.

End the Sanctions on Syria!


The Economic War on the Syrian Arab Republic

By Jay Tharappel

Syria is being destabilised both militarily and economically. Militarily by insurgent forces sponsored by NATO, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Turkey. Economically by the sanctions regime imposed by the United States, the European Union, and even the Arab League.

The Syrian economy has contracted by roughly 35 percent since the beginning of the war. Although the crisis began in March 2011, throughout that year the inflation rate registered at 4.8 percent above the previous year, then in 2012 it jumped to 36.9 percent which coincided with the stronger sanctions imposed in August 2011. In 2013, the inflation rate jumped to 59.1 percent (see appendix).

The corporate media has lamented the humanitarian crisis currently afflicting Syria without addressing the issue of what’s causing it. Often charities and NGOs will encourage donors to send money to refugee camps in neighbouring countries like Jordan, Lebanon, or Turkey. The vast bulk of the humanitarian burden is carried by the institutions of the Syrian state who are currently providing for 5.7 million internally displaced persons.

Often sanctions are justified on the grounds that they’re “targeted” in the sense that they don’t explicitly prevent the export of basic necessities like food. However, what this ignores is that sanctions needn’t directly prevent the trade of basic necessities to make those goods increasingly scarce and unaffordable in the targeted country.

Imposing barriers on trade, especially on financial transactions, increases both the real and perceived ‘sovereign risk’ for entities doing business in that nation, which inexorably undermines the value of that nation’s currency.

The U.S. government has imposed various sanctions on Syria since 1979 which is when Syria was designated a “State Sponsor of Terrorism”. These measures entered a new phase of hostility after the U.S. led ‘War on Terror’.

In 2004 the Bush administration issued the Executive Order 13338, which prohibited the export to Syria of various types of industrial machinery and raw materials crucial for the development of a modern economy. Further sanctions involved blocking the assets of individuals in Syria involved with supporting various resistance organisations in Lebanon and Palestine.

The sanctions regime became even more punitive in August 2011, five months into the beginning of the conflict, when the Obama regime issued Executive Order 13582, which included a whole new range of sanction including most significantly, the prohibition of “the supply…of any services to Syria”.

This has meant financial sanctions, which were encountered first-hand by a member of the Hands Off Syria delegation who was blocked from using PayPal – a U.S. company that enforces these sanctions. PayPal also demanded that the HOS member write to the U.S. government explaining “why the attempted access from Syria was made” and requested confirmation that the “account is not held for the benefit of a person or organization in Syria”.

Given the hegemonic role of U.S. financial institutions in world trade, such sanctions have severely undermined the purchasing power of the Syrian pound. Before the war started the exchange rate was 45 Syrian pounds to the U.S. dollar, which has slid precipitously to what it is now – around 150 Syrian pounds to the U.S. dollar.

Over the course of the conflict the black-market rate soared far and above the official rate, reaching 320 Syrian pounds in July 2013, which was 210 Syrian pounds above the officially set rate of 110 Syrian pounds. The problem was solved by shutting down the operations of currency dealers who were selling their nation’s currency at well below the rate set by Damascus (Khalidi, 2013).

To pay for increasingly expensive imports and to prevent a balance of payments crisis (when imports exceed exports leading to currency depreciation), the Syrian government is forced to export greater quantities of oil which drives up local prices. This source of income however has proven unreliable ever since insurgent forces, namely the Al-Nusra Front and ISIS, gained control the oil fields in the north-east of Syria.

The European Union only lifted these sanctions on imports of Syrian oil once these insurgent forces took over these oil-fields. This in turn fuels the insurgency against the Syrian state via the theft of its resources, and also increases the price of oil domestically.

The collapse in the value of the Syrian pound has also impacted the healthcare system.

Prior to the conflict Syria’s healthcare system was relatively successful compared to other nations in the region. Although Syria has the fourth lowest per-capita GDP when compared with its fellow Arab states, it ranks third highest in life expectancy (at around 74 years) beaten only by the oil rich emirates Qatar and the UAE (World Bank).

Syria’s per-capita expenditure on health amounts to a mere $79, which is relatively low compared to Jordan ($246) and Egypt ($200), however, according to 2008 figures, Syria still managed a lower maternal mortality rate at 46 per 100,000 live births, compared to Egypt and Jordan, at 86 and 59 per 100,000 live births respectively.

The sanctions regime have initiated a reversal of many of these gains. Indeed according to Sen et al (2013, p. 198) writing for the Journal of Public Health and Oxford University:

“Sanctions have prevented the entry of essential medical supplies into the country, including those for cancer, diabetes and heart disease, which are not produced locally and is having an impact upon the thousands dependent upon such medication to treat long-term conditions.”

The sanctions have also forced the government to reverse its price controls on food, which have become increasingly unenforceable given the inflation on inputs determining the price of bread. According to Xinhua News, “the majority of merchants continue to charge high prices, citing the depreciation of the Syrian currency and the difficulty of importing goods into Syria under EU sanctions”.

Given the shrinking economy, the government has been forced to make difficult decisions to bolster the Syria pound under conditions of an economic siege, including reducing state subsidies on bread and fuel, thereby saving the Syrian exchequer approximately $80 million and $365 million U.S. dollars per year respectively according to Syria’s Minister of Domestic Trade Samir Qadi Amin.

According to Xinhua:

“The Ministry of Domestic Trade has doubled the prices of white sugar and rice from 25 Syrian pounds (about 0.17 U.S. dollar) to 50 Syrian pounds (about 0.33 dollar) per kg, and the price of subsidized bread bundle has also been raised from 15 Syrian pounds (0.1 dollars) to 25 pounds (about 0.17 dollars) (Xinhua, 2014).”

When the conflict began foreign exchange earnings from industries such as tourism collapsed as a consequence thereby forcing the government to impose import restrictions on non-essential items to mitigate the depletion of Syria’s foreign exchange reserves (Khalidi, 2011).

Ironically however, because the foreigner-infested insurgency, which is extremely unpopular with the Syrian people, requires a lifeline of foreign funding to survive, such inflows of hard-currency have had the unintentional effect of stabilising the value of the Syrian pound as they travel through the economy eventually their finding their way into the hard-currency reserves of Syria’s central bank.

According to one Damascus based Syrian-banker interviewed by Reuters:

“The dollars which are changed to the pound are going back into the veins of the economy. They get into the economic cycle and in the last resort go to the central bank” (Khalidi, 2014)

In this case it seems the means by which foreign powers sustain the insurgency appears to be undermining their efforts to overthrow the Syrian state – a small victory on the economic front perhaps… 


Syria: Economic Indicators (Sourced from DFAT Australia)


  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
GDP (USD billion) (current prices): 52.6 53.9 60 57.96 47.52 38.97
GDP PPP (Int’l billion): 95.7 102.1 106.9 103.3 84.68 69.44
GDP per capita (USD): 2557 2557 2807 2711.6 2223.5 1823.3
GDP per capita PPP (Int’l): 4648 4841 4997 4827.1 3958.2 3245.7
Real GDP growth (% change): 4.5 5.9 3.4 -3.4 -18.8 -18
Current account balance (USD millions): -673 -1584 -1709 -5900 -6700 -5900
Current account balance (% GDP): -1.3 -2.9 -2.8 -10.3 -15 -15.4
Goods & services exports (% GDP): 37.5 29.1 32.7
Inflation (% change): 15.2 2.8 4.4 4.8 36.9 59.1

*Underlined figures have been derived from the GDP growth rates for those years.

2004 Executive Order 13338: In 2004 the U.S. President Bush “declar[ed] a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the actions of the Government of Syria”

The United States justified its sanctions on Syria for the three reasons:

  1. For “continuing its occupation of Lebanon”, which obstructed the Zionist regime’s objective of destroying the Lebanese resistance spearheaded by Hezbollah.
  2. For “pursuing weapons of mass destruction and missile programs”, which the United States would naturally oppose given Syria’s unwillingness to subordinate itself to U.S. interests.
  3. For “undermining United States and international efforts with respect to the stabilization and reconstruction of Iraq”, referring to Syria’s support for the Iraqi resistance.

The EO states: “the Secretary of Commerce shall not permit the exportation or reexportation to Syria of any item on the Commerce Control List (15 C.F.R. Part 774)”. The exhaustive list includes various types of steel and aluminium, ‘bellow valves’, ‘compressors’, ‘gas blowers’, ‘heat exchangers’, and ‘gas centrifuges’, ‘metal heat-treatment furnaces for tempering metals’, that is, important industrial machinery and raw materials crucial for the development of a modern economy, as well as materials that could potentially be used to build a nuclear reactor; and construction equipment “built to military specifications”.

2005 Executive Order 13338: On the 5th of April, 2005, the OFAC issued new regulations to implement the which most significantly allows for the blocking of assets held by people within the United States who have “been directing or otherwise significantly contributing to the Government of Syria’s provision of safe haven” to groups such as “Hamas, Hizballah, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command”. These measures also extend to those who “have been directing or otherwise significantly contributing to the Government of Syria’s military or security presence in Lebanon”; “have been directing or otherwise significantly contributing to the Government of Syria’s pursuit of the development and production of chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons and medium- and long-range surface-to-surface missiles”; and “have been directing or otherwise significantly contributing to any steps taken by the Government of Syria to undermine United States and international efforts with respect to the stabilization and reconstruction of Iraq”. Furthermore the measures also extend to anyone who acts on behalf of blocked persons.

2006 Executive Order 13399: Targeted sanctions extended to those accused of being involved in the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri.

2011 Executive Orders 13572 (03/05/2011)and 13573 (18/05/2011) are targeted sanctions against the following entities and persons:

Bashar Al Assad [President of the Syrian Arab Republic, born September 11, 1965]
Maher Al Assad [Brigade Commander of Syria’s Fourth Armored Division]
Farouk Al Shara [Vice President, born 1938]

Mohammad Ibrahim Al Shaar [Minister of the Interior, born 1950]
Ali Mamluk [Former Director of the Syrian General Intelligence Directorate]
Atif Najib [Former head of the Syrian Political Security Directorate for Daraa province]
Adel Safar [Former Prime Minister, born 1953]
Ali Habib Mahmoud [Former Minister of Defense, born 1939]

Abdul Fatah Qudsiya [Former Head of Syrian Military Intelligence, born circa 1950]
Mohammed Dib Zaitoun [Former Director of Political Security Directorate, born circa 1952]
Syrian General Intelligence Directorate
Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corp – Quds Force

2011 Executive Order 13582 (17th of August, 2011), the following are prohibited:

  1. New investment in Syria by a U.S. person, wherever located;
  2. The direct or indirect exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of any services to Syria from the United States or by a U.S. person, wherever located;
  3. The importation into the United States of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin;
  4. Any transaction or dealing by a U.S. person, wherever located, in or related to petroleum or petroleum
products of Syrian origin; and
  5. Any approval, financing, facilitation, or guarantee by a U.S. person, wherever located, of a transaction by a foreign person where the transaction by that foreign person would be prohibited if performed by a U.S. person or within the United States.


Sen, K. Faisal, W. Saleh, Y. (2013), ‘Syria: effects of conflict and sanctions on public health’, Journal of Public Health, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 195–199

Khalidi, S. (2013), ‘Syrian pound jumps after crackdown on speculators’, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/11/05/syria-crisis-currency-idUSL5N0IQ3GS20131105

Khalidi, S. (2011) http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/09/24/syria-idUSL5E7KO0ZF20110924